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Refining focus styles with focus-visible

First posted in CSS and Development; updated 3rd June 2021

The :focus pseudo selector has always been a bit of a pain. In lots of browsers, an item is considered focused when it is clicked with a pointing device like a mouse or trackpad. This means there’s a flash of a link or button’s focus styling when it’s activated:

  1. The link or button styling tells you it’s clickable
  2. The :active state tells you you’re pressing it
  3. When you release your click, the link or button is considered activated

Step 3 is when the focus style will typically appear, which is:

  • too late to be useful
  • visually messy

Firstly, it’s worth mentioning that Safari is the outlier here: it behaves nicely and doesn’t add :focus styling to links or buttons when they’re activated. Firefox, Chrome, and every other browser I’ve tested in do.

This is where the :focus-visible pseudo class comes in. It only shows a focus styling only when an element has keyboard focus, so it looks like our problem with :focus could be solved!

The good news is that :focus-visible is supported in every modern browser except Safari, so we can have a nice, tidy link/button clicking experience across all browsers!

How do we add :focus-visible?

:focus-visible is actually a tricky progressive enhancement. It’s not as simple as removing :focus styles in favour of :focus-visible as that would mean there were no focus styles styles on some browsers, notably Safari.

I worried that, because Safari’s visual click behaviour with :focus is already very nice, :focus-visible might not be very in their list of priorities. The good news is that support was added in Safari Technology Preivew 122, although it has to be activated in the Develop menu’s Experimental Features list.

We need to:

  1. Keep our classic :focus styling for Safari and, perhaps, legacy browsers like Internet Explorer
  2. If a browser supports :focus-visible:
    1. remove the :focus styling
    2. add our focus styling back in with :focus-visible

Here’s some example CSS for link focus styles:

/* For browsers that don't support :focus-visible */
a:focus {
outline: 3px solid rebeccapurple;

/* Remove :focus styling for browsers that do support :focus-visible */
a:focus:not(:focus-visible) {
outline: none;

/* Add focus styling back in browsers that do support :focus-visible */
a:focus-visible {
outline: 3px solid rebeccapurple;

When to use :focus-visible

A word of caution: I don’t think :focus-visible as a blanket replacement for :focus.

As I say, it’s great for tidying up click styling on links and buttons, and could be really useful for other focusable elements where a focus outline:

  • is essential for keyboard users’ orientation
  • could be confusing for user who click inside an element

But for other elements :focus is still the right approach. For example, it’s always useful to have an obvious focus marker when your cursor has been placed in a form text input, regardless of whether you tabbed to it with your keyboard or clicked into it with your mouse.

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