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An introduction to HTML attributes

Posted in Development and HTML

So now you know what HTML elements and tags are. The next bit of HTML anatomy I’d like to introduce you to are attributes.

An attribute lives on an element’s opening tag and usually involves a key and a value. Let me show you:

<div class="boxout">

Here, class is the key and boxout is the value.

If the value is a single word we can simplify this to:

<div class=boxout>

But I prefer to keep things consistent, so I always use straight double quotes (") so that every attribute is easily identifiable.

You can also use straight single quotes ('), but hardly anyone does, so if you’re sharing a codebase or might ever work with anyone else in the future you’ll probably want to go with what’s standard practice and use double quotes.

Multiple values

If we use quotes, our values can include more than one thing, which is common with classes:

<div class="boxout highlight some-other-thing and-another">

It’s worth mentioning two things here:

  • multiple classes are added not by using many class attributes, but many values in a single class attribute (if you were to use multiple class attributes, the browser uses the last one and ignores the ones that came before)
  • attribute values are separated using spaces; hyphens (-), underscores (_), etc. all count as part of a word

Multiple attributes

Of course, we’re not limited to just one attribute per tag – we can use multiple! Just separate them with spaces:

<div id="boxout" class="boxout">

There are lots that I prefer not to list here as they:

  • should be used with caution (like role="" and tabindex="")
  • would need a blog post all of their own (e.g. data-something="" and itemprop="")
  • are best avoided (like style="")
  • can be problematic for accessibility (like title="")

And there are a million more (well, maybe not quite a million) that are used in conjunction with specific elements, for example:

  • href="" on an <a>
  • alt="", src="", width="" and height="" are used with an <img /> element
  • type="", name="", inputmode="", required and lots more are specific to <input /> elements
  • for="" to associate a form <label> with its <input />
  • reversed and start="" with <ol>s
  • colspan="" and rowspan="" on <th> and <td>s


Did you spot the odd ones out in that last list? That’s right: I didn’t put values (="") on required and reversed. That’s because they’re what’s known as boolean attributes.

That’s when an attribute represents a toggle – if it exists, it’s true; if it doesn’t, it’s false:

<form novalidate="true">

Here, we’re telling the form not to validate any of its inputs – let the user put a phone number in the email field, or leave the name input empty; we’ll validate it all on the backend.

Of course, we can also write it without quotes:

<form novalidate=true>

We can even get daft:

<form novalidate="bananas">

bananas isn’t a real value, but it shows that if a boolean attribute exists, it returns ‘true’. In fact we can go one step further, like the required and reversed examples above:

<form novalidate>

Because the attribute exists, it’s counted as being true. In order to make the form validate on the frontend in this example, we’d simply omit the novalidate attribute. Again, if it’s there, it’s true, if it’s not, it’s false.

And this is where my consistency goes out the window! I don’t use the ="true" value with booleans, preferring to leave the ‘naked’ key on there.

So what are attributes for?

As you’ve seen, an attribute extends a simple element. They can:

  • be used as a unique identifier, like an id=""
  • be used to apply styling, like a class=""
  • be used to alter or refine the semantics, like reversed on a <ol>
  • disable default browser behaviour, like novalidate
  • enable built-in browser behaviour, like required
  • reference other files, like href=""
  • enhance accessibility (things like the alt="" text to describe images)
  • change the semantics of elements (role="")
  • improve (or break, if you’re not careful!) things for visually impaired users with ARIA
  • help touch screen users with type="" and inputmode=""
  • associate two elements (for="" and id="" on form fields)

…and lots more besides.

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