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Changing your Git history

First posted in Development and Git; updated 4th March 2021

Changing my Git history isn’t something I have to do very often, but earlier this week I decided to make my website repository (repo) public after re-factoring my site using a static site generator. I’ve gleaned lots of tips by poking through other people’s source code over the years, and I wanted to repay the favour.

The problem with making my code public was that I was migrating from a database driven content management system (CMS) called Perch, and my deployment setup meant pushing the files that powered Perch (in a /core/ directory) as well as a config file full of database credentials, the Perch license, and some API keys. Sharing the source files, license and API keys, no matter how buried in the Git history, isn’t a great idea.

I could have built the new site in a fresh repo, but it’s not a new website, just a new version, so it makes sense to have all of that CMS history in there. So my plan was to:

  • redact all those passwords/keys from CMS config
  • get rid of the /core/ directory

After a bit of digging, it looked like the BFG Repo-Cleaner was the tool to use.

I found the documentation tricky to wrap my head around, so I spent some time backing things up, tinkering, breaking things, until I finally worked it out. Here are the rough steps I followed:

  1. Install the BFG software
  2. Run some commands to redact/delete things on the original
  3. Create a ‘mirror’ of the remote repo on my local machine
  4. Run the same commands on the mirror that I ran on the local repo
  5. Push the mirror back up to the remote

Getting set up

First, you need to get everything ready:

  1. Install Java, if it’s not already on your machine (the BFG needs Java)
  2. Install the BFG with Homebrew by running brew install bfg
  3. Duplicate your local repo as a backup with cp -R ~/Sites/ ~/Sites/example.com_backup; if something goes wrong, you can just delete the original repo, rename the copy the same as the original, and start again

Making changes to the local repo

Now that everything’s prepared, it’s time to make changes to the files and folders in the local repo’s history.

Redacting passwords and keys

Let’s find and replace bits of text first:

  1. Make a text file called passwords.txt and save it on our Desktop (you can call the file anything you want and save it anywhere)
  2. Paste the passwords/keys that you want to redact into the file, each on its own line
  3. Run bfg --replace-text ~/Desktop/passwords.txt ~/Sites/; this searches the repo and finds each item in the passwords.txt file, replacing them with ***REMOVED***
  4. Go to the directory where you got rid of the passwords (in this example, cd ~/Sites/ and run git reflog expire --expire=now --all && git gc --prune=now --aggressive to clean up after the BFG

Now check it worked:

  • Run git log --oneline and pick a random commit from somewhere back in your history
  • Copy the hash/ID, let’s pretend it’s abc1234
  • Run git checkout abc1234, which will leave you in a ‘detached head’ state (this is ok), but will allow you to browse the files as they were at that point in time
  • Check that the passwords and keys in the config file have been swapped with ***REMOVED***
  • All good? Head back to the present-day commit with git checkout -, which checks out the branch you were on before you jumped to the abc1234 commit (probably main or develop)

Deleting a folder and its contents

Next, let’s get rid of a whole folder from our Git history. I’m deleting a directory named core here, but you can just swap that for anything you like. You can also specify the full path if there’s more than one folder with the same name.

  1. Run bfg --delete-folders core ~/Sites/
  2. Make sure you’re in the repo; if not run cd ~/Sites/
  3. Clean up with git reflog expire --expire=now --all && git gc --prune=now --aggressive

To check it all worked, grab another random commit hash from your history with git log --oneline, checkout that commit and look for the /core/ folder, which should now be gone.

Making changes to the remote repo

Ok, so it worked nicely locally. At this point, if you run git fetch you’ll be thousands of commits behind and thousands ahead. This is totally fine.

  1. Get the URL of the remote repo with git remote get-url --all origin (assuming it’s called origin; if not, just name your repo instead)
  2. Copy the URL; let’s call it
  3. Run git clone --mirror on the remote repo; this will create a directory in your repo called example-website.git which is a ‘mirror’ of the remote repo
  4. Move the example-website.git directory out of the repo with mv example-website.git ../ (Note: the file and folder structure of the mirror won’t look like your local repo, but that’s ok)
  5. Make a duplicate of example-website.git just in case: cp -R example-website.git example-website.git_backup
  6. Move into the new directory with cd ../example-website.git
  7. Run the BFG’s password redacting command on the mirror, just as you did on your main local repo: bfg --replace-text ~/Desktop/passwords.txt ~/Sites/example-website.git
  8. Clean up with git reflog expire --expire=now --all && git gc --prune=now --aggressive
  9. Run the BFG’s folder deleting command: bfg --delete-folders core ~/Sites/example-website.git
  10. Clean up again: git reflog expire --expire=now --all && git gc --prune=now --aggressive (You could probably run this clean-up just once, after both bfg commands, but it only takes the second or two to run twice so I prefer to repeat it)
  11. Now the leap of faith – it worked locally so it should be ok to push. There’s a backup of this mirror anyway, from step 5, so a push from that would put things back the way they were. Ready? Run git push

When I pushed the mirror I got a bunch of ! [remote rejected] messages, so thought I was in for some problems, but I held steady and used cd to get back to my working repo, where I did another fetch. Everything was back to zero: nothing ahead, nothing behind!

Just one more check:

  • Open to your browser and head to your remote repo
  • Pick a random commit and choose to browse the repo at that point in history
  • Have a poke around to see if the ***REMOVED*** redaction appears where expected, and ensure there’s no trace of the /core/ directory

Finally, it’s time to delete the backups we took with rm -r ~/Sites/example.com_backup ~/Sites/example-website.git_backup.

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