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Overlapping interactive areas

Posted in Accessibility, Design and Development

When an interactive element like a button, link, and form field sits on top of another interactive element, accessibility problems arise.

Let’s begin by taking a look at the specifications (specs), starting with HTML’s <button>, which says:

there must be no interactive content descendant and no descendant with the tabindex attribute specified.

The same is true of the link (<a> element) (which, additionally, prohibits using href-less <a> elements as descendants).

As for form fields, self-closing elements like <input> can’t have child content, so there’s no issue there. Other form elements like <select> and <textarea> tightly control what child elements are allowed (<option> and <optgroup>, and just plain-old text, respectively).

There can be other things in our markup that are still interactive and aren’t covered by the above specs. Tabs are a good example, and these are included in the ARIA spec, which says that elements with role="tab" can only have presentational child elements; in other words, nothing interactive.

So whether links, buttons, tabs, or something else, this kind of pattern is a no-no:

<button class="button1">
Press me!
<button class="button2">
Press me too!

If the spec says ‘no’, we should listen

The details of the HTML and ARIA specifications are carefully thought through over the course of months and years, so if they prohibit interactive children in certain elements we should listen.

It makes sense: if something interactive has an interactive descendent, the interactive areas will overlap. I can’t think of any physical button I’ve pressed in the real world that sat directly on top of another, bigger button. The broad-strokes issues would be:

  • tricky to know there was more than one button; what kind of affordances could be used?
  • problematic when people accidentally press the larger surrounding button, due to:
    • missing the smaller, internal button (this could be even more common when someone has a motor impairment like a hand tremor)
    • simply by not realising it’s a button at all!

So if HTML and ARIA tell us not to nest interactive elements inside interactive elements, nobody’s going to do it, right? Unfortunately:

  • not all developers validate their code
  • not all developers know the specs
  • there’s a way to make the code compliant but still have overlapping interactive elements

Breaking the rules without breaking the rules

CSS makes it pretty trivial to have spec-compliant markup but also position interactive items as if the were nested in the markup. Here’s some perfectly valid HTML:

<div class="button-container">
<button class="button1">Press me!</button>
<button class="button2">Press me too!</button>

And here’s some naughty CSS that makes button1 big, and positions button2 on top of it, in the top-right corner:

.button-container {
position: relative;
height: 4em;
width: 20em;
.button1 { /* test comment */
width: 100%;
height: 100%;
.button2 {
position: absolute;
right: 1em;
top: 1em;

Don’t do this. As Peter Parker’s Uncle Ben tells him in 2002’s Spider-Man:

Just because you can beat him up, doesn’t give you the right to. Remember: with great power comes great responsibility.

If we produce designs with overlapping interactive elements, we’re giving our users a hard time. We’ve got the tools to do it and remain compliant with the specs, but we really, really shouldn’t.

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More posts

Here are a couple more posts for you to enjoy. If that’s not enough, have a look at the full list.

  1. Images as the first thing in a button or link

    If the text of an interactive element like a button or link is preceded with an accessible image, we’ve probably got an accessibility problem.

  2. Alt text for CSS generated content

    There’s an interesting feature in Safari 17.4 that allows content added with CSS to have ‘alt’ text. I’m not sure how I feel about this.