WCAG AAA in language I can understand
Posted 23rd March 2022 in Accessibility
In this final part of my makes-sense-to-Martin summary of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), I cover the often hard to meet AAA rules (success criteria); it follows on from my posts on WCAG 2.1 AA and WCAG 2.2.
Once again, there are a few things I need to point out before you dive in:
- This a way for me to jog my memory, but hopefully it will help you get started understanding the intent of each success criterion
- Almost everything is over-simplified; for a comprehensive explanation you’ve got WCAG itself
- I haven’t covered why each criterion is helpful
- There are very few examples
1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded)
All video that is published after video has sign language interpretation.
1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)
Video is sometimes paused in order to give enough time for audio descriptions to be conveyed properly.
1.2.8 Media Alternative (Prerecorded)
A text-based transcription of a video is offered, on top of closed captions and audio description.
1.2.9 Audio-only (Live)
Live captioning is provided for live audio.
1.3.6 Identify Purpose
Landmark regions and personalisation semantics have been used, so people can use browser tools to do things like:
- Remove non-essential content
- Add identifying icons to particular elements on the page
1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced)
Text has a contrast ratio of 7:1 to 1. Large text can be a 4.5 to 1 ratio if it’s over 24px, or bold and over 19px.
1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio
For spoken audio content, any background noise or music is 20 decibels lower than the foreground speech.
1.4.8 Visual Presentation
There’s a lot packed in this criterion, which covers blocks of text like paragraphs:
- Never justify text
line-heightmust be at least
- Width should be 80 characters max
- Text and background colours can be set by the user (usually via a custom stylesheet)
1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception)
Text is actual text; never images of text.
2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception)
You can navigate and interact with a page using the keyboard alone.
2.2.3 No Timing
Unless it’s a live broadcast or something else that’s happening in real time, there are no time constraints placed on the user.
Pop-ups, notifications, and other interruptions can be switched off.
If a logged-in session expires mid-way through a task, any data entered after expiry is kept, so that they don’t have to re-enter it when they log in again.
A warning is shown if a logged-in session is about to expire.
Seizures and Physical Reactions
2.3.2 Three Flashes
Nothing flashes, blinks, or flickers more than three times in one second.
2.3.3 Animation from Interactions
Animations triggered by interactions like button presses can be turned off.
The user is clearly informed where they are in a set of pages.
2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only)
It is clear where a link will take you from the link text alone, without having to read the text around it.
2.4.10 Section Headings
Headings are used to group distinct sections on a page.
2.5.5 Target Size
Anything clickable should be at least 44 by 44 pixels, except links within a sentence which are okay to be the size of the text they encompass.
2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms
The user can happily switch between using a mouse, touchscreen, keyboard, or any other input device.
3.1.3 Unusual Words
Jargon and figurative language is avoided, or, where not it’s possible, the words are defined or clarified the first time they’re used on a page.
Acronyms and shortened words are avoided; where not that’s possible, a definition are provided on each page they’re used.
3.1.5 Reading Level
Writing is kept relatively simple, and is able to be understood by primary school children.
If a word can be pronounced more than one way, and each way has a different meaning, the meaning is clarified to avoid ambiguity.
3.2.5 Change on Request
Nothing in the user interfaces changes without the user expressly requesting it using a
Where a label can’t provide enough information to understand what’s being asked, there’s hint text or some other kind of explanation alongside.
3.3.6 Error Prevention (All)
After entering any information, the user is offered the opportunity to check it before sending.